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When there is a discrepancy between traditional chronology and the Bible’s chronology, scholars usually ignore the Bible.

However, both Manetho’s history and the Sothic theory have flaws that make them an unreliable foundation for chronology.

Ptolomy II commissioned a priest named Manetho to compile a history of Egypt.

Traditional Egyptian chronology bases its outlines of Egyptian dynasties on Manetho’s history (see chart).

However, Manetho’s writings are unsuitable for establishing a reliable Egyptian chronology because Manetho’s history: Manetho, whose writings only survive as a partially preserved “garbled abridgement,”3 did not intend for his history to be a chronological account of Egyptian history.

Like everyone else in the ancient world, Manetho measured time in regnal years (“in the fifth year of King So-and-So”). It was not a succession of kings occupying the throne one after the other, but several kings reigning at the same time in different regions.”4 Because Manetho’s history lists the reigns of kings who ruled simultaneously, historians should not add the years of the kings’ reigns together as if the kings ruled one after another. Breasted, author of History of Egypt, calls Manetho’s history “a late, careless and uncritical compilation, which can be proven wrong from the contemporary monuments in the vast majority of cases, where such documents have survived.”5 Manetho’s interpretation of each variation in spelling as a different king creates numerous nonexistent generations. as a totally certain date for the establishment of Egypt’s civil calendar.8 The Sothic cycle finds little historical support.

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